How to formulate research problems?

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How to formulate research problems? | CleverX

One of the most important steps in the research process is formulating a research problem. It establishes the framework for the whole study and directs the researcher in determining the research’s emphasis, scope, and goals. An effective research technique may be created with the support of a clearly defined research topic, which also aids in the generation of pertinent research questions.

This article will provide a general overview of the procedure involved in defining research problems, highlighting important considerations and steps researchers should take to formulate precise and insightful research problems.

What is a research problem?

It refers to a specific topic, problem, or knowledge gap that a researcher aims to study and address through a systematic inquiry. It establishes the foundation for a research project and guides the entire investigation.

When creating a research problem, researchers often start with a topic of interest before focusing on a particular issue or question. A substantial, relevant, and original challenge adds to the corpus of knowledge and has real-world applications.

A clearly stated research topic aids in the concentration of research resources and efforts, permits the development of an effective research technique, and directs the evaluation and interpretation of data acquired. It also helps in developing research goals and hypotheses by giving the investigation a distinct direction.

For instance, a research problem could be “What are the causes leading to the decline of bee populations in urban areas?” — This study challenge addresses a particular set of urban regions and draws attention to the problem of dwindling bee numbers. By focusing on this issue, researchers may analyze the various reasons for the loss, analyze how it affects the environment, and suggest conservation tactics.

Characteristics of an effective research problem

An effective research problem possesses several essential qualities that enhance its quality and suitability for examination. The key characteristics of a strong research problem are:


Should address an important issue or knowledge gap in the field of study, contributing to the existing body of knowledge.


Should be precisely stated, avoiding vague or overly general statements and providing a clear and concise description. This clarity enables the definition of research objectives and hypotheses and guides the research process.


Should be feasible in terms of the available time, resources, and skills. It can be realistically pursued, given the researcher’s capabilities and study circumstances. Sufficient data, research tools, and potential exploration paths should be reasonably accessible.


Should explore new facets, angles, or dimensions of the subject, offering fresh perspectives or approaches. This characteristic promotes intellectual progress and distinguishes the research from previous investigations.


Should be formulated in a way that allows for empirical examination and the generation of quantifiable results. Data can be systematically collected and analyzed to answer the research questions or achieve the research goals, enhancing the objectivity and rigor of the research process.

Relevance and applicability

Should address relevant issues or help develop useful guidelines, regulations, or actions. It is more effective when it impacts multiple stakeholders and has the potential to produce practical results.

Interest and motivation

Should be intellectually engaging and interesting to the researcher and the academic community. It sparks curiosity and encourages further research, leading to high-quality research output.

Ethical consideration

Should adhere to ethical principles and rules, considering the welfare and rights of participants or subjects involved in the study.

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Types of research problems

Research problems can be categorized into different types based on their nature and scope. The three most common types are:


It involves using theoretical frameworks, concepts, and models to investigate a subject or event. Theoretical research aims to extend existing knowledge, address unsolved disputes or gaps, or critique and evaluate preexisting theories.


It focuses on specific problems or challenges within a particular industry or sector and aims to provide practical solutions through systematic research. Applied research aims to bridge the gap between theory and practical application, optimizing existing processes, technologies, products, or services.


Action research combines research and action to address real-world issues. It encompasses problem-solving in various contexts, such as organizations, education, community development, policy implementation, and personal or professional development. Action research is flexible and can be tailored to different situations and issues.

Importance of research problems

Research problems play a vital role in shaping the direction and course of an investigation. They serve as the foundation for the entire research process, guiding researchers in their pursuit of knowledge and advancement in a specific field. The importance of research problems lies in the following:

Identifying knowledge gaps

Research problems help identify areas where knowledge is lacking or incomplete, highlighting the need for further investigation and addressing unanswered questions.

Providing direction

A well-defined research problem gives the research project focus and direction. It aids in the development of an effective research design, technique and the establishment of research objectives and questions.

Justifying the study’s significance

A clear research problem helps researchers justify the value and importance of their study by emphasizing its relevance, potential benefits, and contributions to the field.

Facilitating problem-solving and decision-making

Research problems often stem from real-world challenges or problems. By examining these problems, researchers can develop innovative ideas, methods, or strategies to solve practical issues or guide decision-making.

Advancing theory and knowledge

Research problems serve as a basis for developing new concepts, hypotheses, or models. By addressing research challenges, researchers contribute to understanding a subject, debunk preexisting beliefs, or propose new hypotheses.

Promoting intellectual curiosity and innovation

Research problems encourage intellectual curiosity and innovation by pushing researchers to explore fresh perspectives and methodologies. By encouraging critical thinking, generating original ideas, and developing unique research approaches, research problems foster innovation and creativity.

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5 steps to formulate research problems

Formulating research problems is a crucial initial step in conducting purposeful and targeted research. Here are five steps to follow:

Identify the broad research area

Determine the broad subject or field that interests you, considering discipline-specific topics or specific phenomena.

Conduct a literature review

Review existing literature and research in your chosen field to understand the current knowledge level and identify gaps or unsolved issues and areas requiring further research. Read relevant scholarly publications, books, and articles to gain a comprehensive understanding.

Narrow down the focus

Based on the literature review, select a specific component or subject within your chosen research field. Look for inconsistencies, contradictions, or open-ended questions in the existing literature that can present challenges for future research. Refine your research topic and focus it on a single problem or phenomenon.

Define clear objectives

Establish clear and concise research objectives that outline your investigation’s specific aims or outcomes. SMART (specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, and time-bound) objectives help maintain focus and guide the research process effectively.

Formulate research questions

Create distinct research questions or hypotheses that align with your research problem and objectives. Qualitative research often utilizes research questions, while quantitative research employs hypotheses. Ensure these inquiries or hypotheses are precise, concise, and aimed at addressing the stated research problem.


Remember that formulating research problems is an iterative process. As you learn more about the topic and develop new ideas, it can need several changes and improvements. You may establish a solid basis for your study and improve your chances of performing fruitful and influential research by adhering to these recommendations and continually improving your research problem.

Researchers can create precise and insightful research problems that add to the body of knowledge and progress in their particular fields of study by using the procedures described in this article. A research problem outlines the precise field of inquiry and knowledge gaps that the research attempts to address, defining the scope and objective of a study.

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